How Much Fluid Should A 2 Year Old Drink Uk Turritopsis Nutricula – A Living Fountain of Youth

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Turritopsis Nutricula – A Living Fountain of Youth

According to a story written by Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo a General and Natural History of the Indies (1535) Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon (1474-1521), the first governor of Puerto Rico (then called Boriquien) attempted to discover the fountain of youth, a mystical fountain that restored youth to all who drank of its waters. Although the legend originally pointed to Ethiopia based on Book III of Herodotus’ History, when the Greek historian (c. 484 BC-c. 425 BC) wrote in c. 440 BC – “The Ichthyophages [a term synonymous with coastal dwelling peoples] Then, in turn, they asked the king about the lifespan and diet of his people, and were told that most of them lived to be a hundred and twenty years old, while some even went longer. beyond that age: they ate boiled meat and had nothing to drink but milk.

When the ichthyophages were surprised by the number of years, [Egyptian Pharaoh Amasis (570 BC-526 BC)] led them to a spring [in Ethiopia], where, when they had washed, they found their flesh all shining and glistening, as if they had bathed in oil, and an odor like that of violets issued from the spring. The water was so weak, they said, that nothing would float in it, not wood, not any lighter substance, but everything went to the bottom. If the account of this source were true, it would be their constant use of water from it, which makes them so long-lived”[1] – later stories pointed to an island called Boinca located in Benini or Bimini, the westernmost district of the Bahamas.

With Boinca within reach, Ponce de Leon made two attempts to locate the mystical fountain: one in 1513 and the other in 1521. Although accounts indicate that he never found the fountain of youth, scientific evidence indicates that he came tantalizingly close. Had he looked beneath the pristine waters of the Caribbean, he might have spotted a biologically immortal jellyfish (absence of a sustained increase in the death rate as a result of increasing chronological age, as indicated by the mortality law of Gompertz-Makeham), the jellyfish. Turritopsis nutriculathat with its gelatinous composition (96% water, 3% salt/other compounds and 1% carbon and nitrogen), bright and transparent bell shape and ability to return to a younger state, is a living fountain of youth.

However, it was not until March 1992 that Giorgio Bavestrello, Christian Somner and Michele Sará published Bidirectional conversion in Turritopsis nutricula that this living fountain of youth was discovered. Unlike other jellyfish that usually die after spawning, Turritopsis nutriculaa small, solitary organism that feeds on shrimp brine, microscopic plankton, zooplankton and other tiny organisms, demonstrated “a unique case of ontogeny (the development of an individual organism from embryo to adult).”

Turritopsis nutricula, which originated in the Caribbean (but has spread throughout the world’s oceans) is currently the only known organism where transdifferentiation (the irreversible transformation of cells from one differentiated type to another) occurs at the organic even though its individual parts, by themselves, are incapable of regeneration. Apart from Turritopsis nutricula’s transdifferentiation, the phenomenon that by CDM Davey, Theory of transdifferentiation (May 2, 2006) “is a very rare event in nature,” usually occurs at the organic level when certain organisms such as newts and salamanders regenerate missing parts. In summary, although cell type change occurs in exceptional cases, usually when an organism regenerates an organ or part, it is an integral phase in Turritopsis nutricula’s life cycle

With its ability to reverse the aging process: return from a mature adult stage to an immature polyp stage (its first stage of life) an indefinite number of times based on experimental results that indicated a transformation rate of 100% based on a sample of 4000 Turritopsis nutricula medusae collected in the Gulf of Naples in the western Mediterranean between June 1993 and October 1994, regardless of exposure to adverse conditions or the type of stressor or the absence thereof as reported by Stefano Piraino, Ferdinando Boero , Brigitte Aeschbach and Volker Schmid a Reversing the life cycle: jellyfish transform into polyps and cell transdifferentiation Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidarians, Hydrozoa) (Biology Bulletin, June 1996) – Turritopsis nutricula it has no natural limit to its lifespan, as it can effectively regenerate its entire body. Turritopsis nutricula basically uses transdifferentiation to address environmental stressors (eg increasing/decreasing water temperature, reducing salinity (salt content), food scarcity and even senescence (biological aging )) and to repair physical/internal damage (e.g. body especially its bell are punctured or cut) regardless of the stage. Besides, Turritopsis nutricula it also engages in transdifferentiation after sexual activity, regardless of whether stressful conditions are present.

Although Turritopsis nutricula’s The ability to transdifferentiate makes him biologically immortal, he is not naturally immortal per se. Like any jellyfish, it is subject to predation and disease (especially during the immature plankton stage; consequently, most of those that succumb die before the (mature) jellyfish stage). However, since this last it means a reduced risk, the population of Turritopsis nutricula is currently increasing uncontrollably, which prompted Maria Pia Miglietta, Ph.D. of the Smithsonian Tropical Marine Institute to state, “We’re looking at a silent invasion around the world.”[2]

Life cycles of jellyfish and Turritopsis nutricula:

The typical jellyfish has a finite lifespan ranging from a few hours for smaller species to several months or even years for larger species. From the time of their creation, jellyfish usually experience senescence with natural death ultimately resulting after propagation. Turritopsis nutricula, on the other hand, prevents senescence because transdifferentiation or reversion to a younger state allows it to maintain efficient DNA repair capabilities, retain high levels of antioxidants and minimize the production of free radicals (harmful oxidants that damage the cellular ability of an organism to respond to homeostatic imbalances (loss of balance), disease and other stressors). In doing so, it prevents apoptosis or programmed cell death. Transdifferentiation, which is a critical part Turritopsis nutricula’s The life cycle is described below:

1. The eggs develop in the gonads (located in the stomach walls) of the female Turritopsis nutricula.

2. Mature eggs are fertilized by sperm released into water columns by the male Turritopsis nutricula.

3. The fertilized eggs develop into planular larvae that settle on the seabed and establish colonies of polyps called hydroids. Each polyp relies on tiny feeding tubes to sustain itself.

4. Each polyp then produces a medusa (jellyfish).

5. Within a few days, the jellyfish (about 1 mm in diameter with eight evenly spaced tentacles) separate from the hydroid colony.

6. In 18-30 days, jellyfish reach sexual maturity conditioned on average water temperature (18-22 days for an average temperature of 72º F; 25-30 days for an average temperature of 68º F) . Upon reaching maturity, Turritopsis nutricula Jellyfish range from approximately 4 to 5 mm and consist of 80 to 90 tentacles.

7. Turritopsis nutricula it then engages in reverse metamorphosis by gradually inverting or contracting its bell with “intensive DNA replication occurring in the cells of the exumbrella, the endoderm of the radial canals, and those of the endoderm of the sub-umbrella plate” for Reversing the life cycle: jellyfish transform into polyps and cell transdifferentiation Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidarians, Hydrozoa) (Bulletin of Biology, June 1996).

8. Its tentacles and meogloea (the middle layer) shrink and reabsorb as Turritopsis nutricula retreats into a cyst or patch of tissue, settling on a substrate (surface on which it grows or an organism adheres).

9. Turritopsis nutricula The jellyfish then produce stolons that develop into polyps within days to form another hydroid colony. Each polyp then produces a jellyfish bud as the cycle resumes from step 4 only to repeat itself over and over due to sexual activity or exposure to stress, the latter of which increases DNA replication, a key prerequisite of the transdifferentiation process.

Conclusion:

Scientists and geneticists are currently studying Turritopsis nutricula to discover its remarkable ability to reverse the aging process. Although the method Turritopsis nutricula uses remain unknown, the simplicity of the organism, the genetic code (DNA could be structured to initiate reversion to the polyp state when specific senescence, biological, or stress conditions are met based on changes in the chemical composition that could serve as a catalyst) partial potential (in which the fusion of adult embryonic stem cells (ES) with pluripotent stem cells (PS) would like to play a role in transdifferentiation) or the complete retention of the pluripotency (in which your entire stem cell count would consist of PS cells) may play a role. Turritopsis nutricula The ability to transdifferentiate, however, does not depend solely on stem cells. Instead, interstitial cells (differentiating stem cells) along with differentiating secretory (exumbrella or bell), digestive/circulatory (gastrovascular), and/or striated muscle cells are also thought to play a role.

Ultimately, researchers should unravel the mystery of how Turritopsis nutricula is engaged in transdifferentiation, the secret of biological immortality could be achieved by ending the age-old and often perceived quixotic search for the fountain of youth. However, should this development occur, the range of socio-economic, demographic, generational and even ethical problems (life expectancy would be determined by the government through euthanasia to respond to greater competition for limited and finite resources as a result of overpopulation?) to address would be surprising and perhaps impossible to resolve. Consequently, even if scientific research ends up solving the mystery of this living fountain of youth, humanity may be, figuratively speaking, prohibited from drinking its waters in order to maintain socio-economic, generational and moral stability, especially since the alternative could have significant unintended consequences. which could even lead to Armageddon and human extinction.

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