How Much Milk Does A 2 1/2 Year Old Need Breast Cancer – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

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Breast Cancer – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. In the United States, approximately 180,000 women develop it each year. The disease can also occur in men, although male breast cancer accounts for less than 1 in 100 cases. The risk increases with age, doubling every 10 years.

The disease is most often diagnosed in women over the age of 50. Very few women under 30 develop it. Despite the increase in incidence, there has been a slight decline in the number of deaths in recent years and only about a fifth of cases turn out to be fatal. This reduction is due to improved treatments and the increased use of mammography for screening, which means that tumors can be detected early, when they often respond well to treatment.

Screening can reduce the number of deaths in women over 50 by up to 4 in 10. In the United States, many doctors recommend that women over 40 have a mammogram every 1 to 2 years and every year from the age of 50. A cancerous tumor may first develop in the breast lobules (the structures in the breast that produce milk). A tumor that starts in the milk ducts can lead to Paget’s disease of the breast. Tumors can spread to other organs, such as the lungs or liver, before they are detected.

It is a cancer that starts in the breast tissue of women and men. It can spread to lymph nodes under the arm before diagnosis. At an advanced stage of the disease, metastases can be observed in many organs of the body, including bones, brain, lungs, liver and skin.

Cause :

The underlying cause for most is unclear. However, certain risk factors have been identified, many of which suggest that estrogen, a female hormone, is an important factor in the development and progression of the disease. It is known that women who have their first period before the age of 11, or who have a late menopause, seem to have an increased risk of developing this cancer, probably because they are exposed longer to high levels of estrogens. The number of menstrual cycles before a first pregnancy is also important. And a woman who has her first child before the age of 20 has a chance. Breastfeeding is thought to have an additional protective effect.

Risk factors for developing it include

. Early onset of menstruation or late menopause

. First pregnancy after 30

. Family history of the disease

. Radiation exposure

Possible risk factors include

. high fat diet

. Excessive consumption of alcohol

. Estrogen replacement therapy

. Use of oral contraceptives

Symptoms:

It usually manifests as a painless lump anywhere in the breast or under the arm. Sometimes its symptoms can be more subtle, such as:

. An inverted nipple

. Bloody discharge from the nipple

. Changes in the skin covering the breast, making it look like the skin of an orange.

Diagnostic:

Any breast pain or lump felt during a physical exam by a woman or her doctor and any lump found on mammography (x-ray) should be considered for biopsy. Masses visible on mammography but not palpable on examination can be located by ultrasound or mammography for biopsy. If a diagnosis is established, staging tests include:

. Liver function tests

. Alkaline phosphate test to check for bone disease

. Chest x-ray (x-ray)

. Bone scanner (nuclear medicine)

Complications:

The complications of this are related to the areas of metastases:

. Bone metastases can cause pain, bone fractures, or high levels of calcium in the blood.

. Metastases to the brain or spinal cord can cause seizures, headaches, weakness, numbness, or confusion.

. Lung metastases can cause difficulty breathing, chest pain, or swelling of the face and neck.

Treatment: Self-treatment:

. A well-balanced diet should be maintained. Once diagnosed, all estrogen medications should be stopped, including birth control pills.

Medical treatment:

Many women will need additional drug treatment after surgery to keep it from coming back. Tamoxifen (a hormonal pill) or chemotherapy (intravenous medication) may be recommended, depending on the type of tumor. More advanced cases are also treated with chemotherapy or hormone therapy.

Surgical treatment:

Two alternative initial treatments for this are:

. Lumpectomy with lymph node dissection followed by radiotherapy to the breast.

. Mastectomy (partial mastectomy or modified radical mastectomy)

Prevention:

Early detection of this by regular self-examination of the animal and regular screening by mammography (radiography) is important. A low-fat diet and moderate alcohol consumption can be important. Some researchers hypothesize that exercise for preteen girls may be helpful because it delays the age of onset of menstruation.

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