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Dyslexia – How to Recognize Dyslexia in Children
deer mom and dad
I don’t want to go to school anymore because the children make fun of me. I can’t reed please help me
your sunshine david
David is not a dunce. In fact, according to the assessments of a few professionals, he is quite intelligent. Yet he certainly has a problem, and he shares his problem with millions of other children and adults. David is dyslexic.
The term “dyslexia” was introduced in 1884 by the German ophthalmologist R. Berlin. He coined it from the Greek words “dys” meaning sick or difficult and “lexis” meaning word, and used it to describe a specific disturbance in reading in the absence of pathological conditions in the visual organs. In a later publication, in 1887, Berlin stated that dyslexia, “presuming to be right-handed”, is caused by left-sided brain damage. He spoke of “word blindness” and detailed his observations with six brain-damaged patients who were fluent in verbal communication but had lost the ability to read.
In the following century, the narrow definition that Berlin attached to the term dyslexia would expand. Today, the term dyslexia is frequently used to refer to a “normal” child – or adult – who seems much brighter than their readings and writings suggest. Although the term is primarily used to describe a severe reading problem, there is little agreement in the literature or in practice regarding the definition of severe or the specific distinguishing features that differentiate dyslexia from other reading problems. Instead of getting involved in squabbling over a definition, one could simply use the “symptoms” below as an indication that a child has a reading problem and therefore needs help.
Directional confusion can take many forms, from uncertainty about left and right to the inability to read a map accurately, says Dr. Beve Hornsby in her book “Overcoming Dyslexia.” A child should know his left and his right by the age of five and be able to tell someone else’s right by the age of seven. Directional confusion affects other concepts such as up and down, up and down, compass directions, keeping one’s place in games, being able to copy the gym teacher’s movements when facing you , etc. Up to eight out of ten severely dyslexic children have directional confusion. The percentage is lower for those with a mild condition, she says.
Directional confusion is the reason for the inversion of letters, whole words or numbers, or what is called mirror writing. The following symptoms indicate directional confusion:
* The dyslexic can reverse letters like ‘b’ and ‘d’, or ‘p’ and ‘q’, whether reading or writing.
* It can reverse letters, read or write ‘n’ as ‘u’, or ‘m’ as ‘w’.
* He can read or write words like “non” for “on” or “rat” for “tar”.
* It can read or write 17 for 71.
* It can mirror letters, numbers and words.
Many dyslexics have problems with sequencing, that is, perceiving something in sequence and also remembering the sequence. Naturally, this will affect their ability to read and spell correctly. After all, every word is made up of letters in a specific sequence. To read, one must perceive the letters in order, and also remember which word is represented by the order of the letters in question. By simply changing the sequence of letters in ‘name’ it can become ‘mean’ or ‘amen’.
Here are some of the symptoms of dyslexia that indicate sequencing difficulties:
* When reading, the dyslexic may put the letters in the wrong order, reading ‘feel’ as ‘left’, or ‘act’ as ‘cat’.
* He may put the words in the wrong order, reading ‘is there’ for ‘there is’.
* It can omit letters, i.e. read or write ‘cat’ for ‘cart’, or ‘wet’ for ‘went’.
Dyslexics may also have difficulty remembering the order of the alphabet, strings of numbers, eg telephone numbers, months of a year, seasons and events of the day. Young children may also have trouble remembering the days of the week. Some are unable to repeat longer words orally without putting the syllables in the wrong order, for example words like “preliminary” and “statistical”.
DIFFICULTIES WITH SMALL WORDS
A frequent comment made by parents of children struggling with their reading is, “He’s so careless, he understands the big difficult words, but keeps making stupid mistakes about all the little ones.” Admittedly, the poor reader gets stuck on difficult words, but many seem to make matters worse by making mistakes on simple words they should be able to handle – like “if”, “to”, “and”.
It is important to note that this is extremely common and is not a sign that a child is particularly careless or lazy.
Research has revealed a dramatic link between abnormal spoken language development and learning disabilities such as dyslexia. Here are some examples :
* A 1970 study by Dr. Renate Valtin of Germany, based on one hundred pairs of dyslexic and normal children, found evidence of delayed speech development and a higher frequency of speech impairment in dyslexics than in normal children.
* According to Dr. Beve Hornsby, author of Overcoming Dyslexia, approximately 60% of dyslexics speak late.
* In her book “Learning Disabilities”, author Janet Lerner states that “Language problems in one form or another underlie many learning disabilities. Oral language disorders include poor phonological awareness, speech delay, problems with grammar or syntax, vocabulary acquisition and poor understanding of spoken language.
In most cases, a baby should be able to understand simple words and commands by the age of nine months. From about a year, he should say his first words. In pairs, they should have a vocabulary of no more than 200 words and use simple two-word phrases such as “drink milk”. By age three, he should have a vocabulary of up to 900 words and use complete sentences without skipping words. He can still mix his consonants but his speech must be understandable to foreigners. At four years old, he should be perfectly able to speak, although he may still make grammatical errors.
If a child speaks immaturely or still makes unexpected grammatical errors in their speech at age five, this should alert parents to possible later reading problems. Parents should immediately take steps to improve the child’s language.
DIFFICULTIES WITH WRITING
Some dyslexics suffer from poor writing skills. The word “dysgraphia” is often used to describe a difficulty in this area, and is characterized by the following symptoms:
* Generally illegible handwriting.
* Letter inconsistencies.
* Mixture of uppercase/lowercase letters or printed/cursive letters.
* Irregular letter sizes and shapes.
* Unfinished letters.
* Struggle to use writing as a communication tool.
OTHER SYMPTOMS OF DYSLEXIA
* Invent a story, based on the illustrations, which has nothing to do with the text.
* Reads very slowly and hesitantly.
* Loses orientation on a line or page when reading, misses lines, or rereads previously read lines.
* Tries to say the letters of the word, but then is unable to say the correct word. For example, say the letters “cat” but then say “cold”.
* Bed with poor understanding.
* Remembers little of what he reads.
* Spell the words as they are pronounced, eg ‘rite’ for ‘law’.
* Ignore punctuation. He may omit periods or commas and not see the need for capitals.
* Poor to copy from table.
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