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Sleep Deprivation and Weight Gain
Sleep needs vary by age and are particularly influenced by lifestyle and health. Researchers cannot determine the exact amount of sleep people at different ages need. However, sleep needs vary from person to person, even within the same age group.
There’s a big difference between how much sleep you can get and how much you need to function optimally. For example, if one is able to operate with six or seven hours of sleep, it does not mean that one will not feel much better and that one will not do more if one spends an hour or two more in bed.
New recommendations on daily sleep needs for adults from the National Sleep Foundation include:
Young adults (18-25) – Sleep range is 7-9 hours
Adults (26-64) – Sleep range is 7-9 hours
Older Adults (65+) – Sleep range is 7-8 hours
Newborns, infants, toddlers, children and adolescents have more daily sleep needs, which vary with their age.
Sleep deprivation occurs when a person sleeps less than necessary to be attentive and alert. People vary in how little sleep it takes to be considered sleep deprived. Some people, like the elderly, seem more resilient to the effects of sleep deprivation, while others, especially children and young adults, are more vulnerable.
Science has linked sleep deprivation to all sorts of health problems, from weight gain to a weakened immune system. Observational studies also suggest a link between sleep deprivation and obesity. Similar patterns have also been found in children and adolescents.
The following mechanisms have been found to underlie the link between sleep deprivation and weight gain –
Increased level of ghrelin –
In research published in the Journal of Sleep Research in September 2008, a single night of sleep deprivation was found to increase ghrelin levels and feelings of hunger in normal-weight healthy men, whereas Morning serum leptin concentrations are not affected. Thus, the results provide further evidence for a disturbing influence of sleep loss on the endocrine regulation of energy homeostasis, which in the long term can lead to weight gain and obesity.
Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the gut and is often called the hunger hormone. It sends a signal to the brain to be hungry. Therefore, it plays a key role in regulating calorie intake and body fat levels.
Interference in carbohydrate metabolism –
Sleep deprivation interferes with the body’s ability to metabolize carbohydrates and causes high blood glucose levels, which lead to higher insulin levels and greater storage of body fat. In one experiment, scientists interrupted participants’ sleep just enough to prevent them from entering deep sleep, but not enough to fully wake them up. After these nights of deep sleep deprivation, the subjects’ insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance decreased by 25%.
Reduction of growth hormone –
Sleep deprivation reduces levels of growth hormone – a protein that helps regulate body fat and muscle ratios. Experts estimate that up to 75% of human growth hormone is released during sleep. Deep sleep is the most restorative of all stages of sleep. During this phase of sleep, growth hormone is released and works to restore and rebuild our body and muscles from the stresses of the day.
Increased cravings for high calorie junk food –
Sleep deprivation, even for one night, creates pronounced changes in how our brain reacts to high-calorie junk food. On days when people don’t get enough sleep, fatty foods like chips and sweets stimulate stronger responses in a part of the brain that helps regulate motivation to eat. But at the same time, they experience a sharp reduction in activity in the frontal cortex, a higher-level part of the brain, where consequences are weighed and rational decisions are made.
Increased cortisol –
Researchers have found that sleep deprivation increases cortisol hormone levels and other markers of inflammation.
Decreased resting metabolic rate –
There is evidence indicating that sleep deprivation can reduce the resting metabolic rate of the body. It is the number of calories our body burns when we are completely at rest. It is affected by age, weight, height, sex and muscle mass. This needs further validation, but a contributing factor appears to be that poor sleep can lead to muscle loss.
The essential –
Also, eating well and exercising regularly, getting quality sleep is an important part of weight maintenance. Therefore, establishing healthy sleep habits can help our body maintain a healthy weight.
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